One of the targets of the UN's Our Common Agenda Report is placing women at the centre. In this paper, we propose a three-step methodology for the analysis of gender inequality: (1) we explain how gender gaps are measured and present several indicators of inequality and discrimination against women. Several international institutions are paying close attention to the topic, and we present their main indexes; (2) we show the different ways that exist to identify the main factors that explain these gaps, in order to propose gender policies; (3) we evaluate the success of real policies in reducing the gender gaps. Discrimination against women exists, but the extent of ‘real’ gender discrimination is quite complex to identify. We describe some techniques for carefully dealing with this issue. It is clear that real discrimination should be eradicated and that the elimination of gender gaps requires the consideration of different social dimensions: work, occupation, income, poverty, social exclusion, education, health, civil rights, political empowerment, participation in culture, relations within the family, co-responsibility in childcare and reconciliation of professional life, different forms of violence against women, among others.
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