The present paper aims at analysing the case ‘Seafood from Slaves’ – first published in March 2015 by The Associated Press (AP) – in light of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (hereinafter UNGPs), focusing on both the State duty to protect human rights (HR) and the corporate responsibility to respect HR. As regards the former aspect, the main domestic legal instruments recently adopted and the reaction of the international community to this case will be analysed. As regards the second aspect, according to the UNGPs, corporations have the responsibility to respect human rights throughout their operations and their value chains. Some lawsuits involving seafood suppliers especially in the US and UK will be considered, as well as the main actions carried out by all the relevant stakeholders, in order to comply with the UNGPs and the national provisions on a transparent and sustainable supply chain. Having focused on the most critical issues, the authors aim at assessing whether the measures taken by the involved corporations and States are either adequate or insufficient to grant consistency with the principles enshrined in the UNGPs. In this latter case the authors will submit suggestions and recommendations.